Meet the Working Group Members for the Global Index of Economic Openness

Led by Dr Stephen Brien and advised by some of the world’s foremost trade experts, our Global Index of Economic Openness will enable governments to assess the economic impact of these market distortions, providing the international community with a unique tool to identify and tackle economic inequality.

A commentary for the Global Index of Economic Openness programme

Published 16 May 2019

Investment Environment

Laura Alfaro is the Warren Alpert Professor of Business Administration. She is also a Faculty Research Associate in the National Bureau of Economic Research’s International Finance and Macroeconomics Program and the International Trade and Investment Program, member of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) Economic Advisory Board, the Latin-American Financial Regulatory Committee (CLAAF), Faculty Associate at Harvard’s Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, and member of the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies’ (DRCLAS) policy committee, among others.  She served as Minister of National Planning and Economic Policy in Costa Rica from 2010-2012, taking a leave from HBS. In 2008, she was honored as a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum.

Manoel Bittencourt is a professor of Economics at the University of the Witwatersrand, a National Research Foundation-rated researcher and the deputy director of the Institutions and Political Economy Group. He is also affiliated with the universities of Bristol, Goettingen, Heidelberg and Oxford, and with Economic Research Southern Africa. He holds a Diploma in Economics from the University of Warwick, and a MSc and PhD in Economics from the University of Bristol.

Jamal Haidar is an assistant professor of economics at The American University in Cairo (AUC). He joined AUC after completing a three-year postdoctoral research fellowship at Harvard University. He holds a PhD in economics from the Paris School of Economics, University of Paris-1 Pantheon Sorbonne (FR), a MA degree in applied economics from Johns Hopkins University (US) and a MSc degree in international finance from Cass Business School, City University London (UK). Previously, he worked at the World Bank, International Finance Corporation, International Monetary Fund, and Institute of International Finance in Washington DC. His fields of specialization are international economics and development economics.


Flora Huang is a senior lecturer at the University of Essex.  Prior to joining the University of Essex in September 2016, Dr. Huang was a lecturer in the Universities of Hull and Leicester. She has worked for international organisations such as the Basel Convention in Geneva and the Office of Legal Affairs of the United Nations Headquarters in New York. She was also a legal consultant in a Chinese bank.


Claudia R. Williamson is an Associate Professor of Economics and the Drew Allen Endowed Fellow at Mississippi State University. She is also Co-Director of the Institute for Market Studies. Her research focuses on applied microeconomics, the role of culture in development, and the political economy of development policies, such as foreign aid.


Richard Jeffrey served as the Chief Economist at Cazenove Capital Management Limited, and was the Chief Investment Officer and Manager. He was responsible for the strategic framework that supports the investment teams and has 30 years of investment experience. He is a Frequent Broadcaster on radio and television and has written for various newspapers and magazines.


Richard Odumodu, is a financial markets and investment management professional with 20 years’ experience spanning corporate coverage and advisory, debt origination, structuring and distribution and portfolio management. His career began in Canada with sales trading roles (TD, CIBC) before moving to the UK. From 2007 to 2011 he led Barclays’ UK government coverage in the corporate and investment banking division. Since 2011 he has been focused on investment management in emerging and frontier markets, particularly Africa, with lead portfolio manager and fund strategist roles at a boutique and institutional alternative investment managers (Silk Invest, Cheyne Capital). Recently, he combines various senior advisory roles with corporates and institutions operating in Africa with his academic work as a Visiting Fellow at Cass Business School Cass where he is completing his doctoral research on capital markets and political economy in Africa.


Horace Yeung obtained his undergraduate degree in accounting and law with first class honours from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, LLM with distinction from Lancaster University and doctorate from the University of Oxford. He was a Sir Edward Youde Scholar and recipient of the Confucius Institute Highly Commended Prize (for my research in Chinese law). Prior to my lectureship with Leicester, he taught at Oxford, Exeter and Universität Osnabrück.


Enterprise Conditions

Pam Bateson started working in business at the age of 11 – helping out in her father’s print business. From this early start, she got a clear sense of the factors that make businesses successful: adaptability, entrepreneurialism, hard work, and the ability to listen to name just a few. Pam honed her skills working in Sainsbury’s, where she progressed through the company’s management training programme, and in the NHS, where she worked on new funding models and implementing trust status. After this, she embedded lean principles into manufacturing, before setting up own management consultancy, Zinnia consulting in 1999.


Georgina Campbell Flatter has committed her career to helping young people develop the skills and mind set to tackle grand social challenges through entrepreneurship. Until very recently, Georgina was a Senior Lecturer in Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Strategic Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management and the Executive Director of the Legatum Center for Development and Entrepreneurship at MIT. She has managed several executive education programs at MIT, led innovation projects at the World Bank, and was on the technical team of an MIT renewable fuels startup.


Saul Estrin is a Professor of Managerial Economics and Strategy and the founding Head of the Department of Management. He was formerly Adecco Professor of Business and Society at London Business School where he was the Director of the CIS Middle Europe Centre and Research Director of the Centre for New and Emerging Markets. At LSE he is affiliated with the Centre for Economic Performance and was the Research Director of the Entrepreneurship Institute.


Tomasz Mickiewicz is the 50th Anniversary Professor of Economics at Aston University, Birmingham; honorary research fellow at University College London; and associate editor of Regional Studies. His research is on how formal and informal institutions affect performance and entrepreneurship. Recent publications include papers in Journal of Business Venturing, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of World Business and others.


Vicky Pryce is Chief Economic Adviser and a board member at the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR). She was previously Senior Managing Director at FTI Consulting, Director General for Economics at the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) and Joint Head of the UK Government Economic Service. Before that she was Partner at the accounting and consulting firm KPMG after senior economic positions in banking and the oil sector. She holds a number of academic posts and is a Fellow and Council member of the UK Academy for Social Sciences, a Fellow of the Society of Professional Economists and a Companion of the British Academy of Management. She sits on the Council of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, on the Advisory Board of the central banking think-tank OMFIF and on the Economic Advisory Group of the British Chambers of Commerce.


Rita Ramalho is the Senior Manager for the Global Indicators Group which houses Doing Business, Subnational Doing Business, Enterprise Surveys, Women Business and the Law, Enabling the Business of Agriculture, as well as other pilot indicator projects. Previously Rita Ramalho was the Manager of the joint World Bank-IFC Doing Business Report. Prior to that she was the program manager of World Bank-IFC Enterprise Surveys and Women, Business and the Law project.


Andres Solimano holds a Ph.D. in Economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and is founder and Chairman of the International Center for Globalization and Development (CIGLOB) based in Santiago, Chile. Previously, he was also a Regional Advisor at the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Country Director at the World Bank, Executive Director at the Inter-American Development Bank and Director of FLACSO-Chile. He is currently CAF-LAC Fellow at Saint Antony’s College, Oxford University.


Mike Troilo is the Chapman Endowed Chair and Associate Professor of International Business and Finance at the University of Tulsa.  His research interests focus on the effects of institutions like legal systems and financial markets on entrepreneurial activity across countries, particularly in transition economies such as China.  He has served as a consultant to the United Nations in the Asia Pacific region for entrepreneurship and economic development, and has published over 40 academic articles, books, and book chapters.  He earned his PhD at the University of Michigan.


Market Access and Infrastructure

Cletus C. Coughlin is a senior vice president and chief of staff to the president at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. He is also a policy associate with the Leverhulme Centre for Research on Globalisation and Economic Policy at the University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England and serves on the editorial board of the Review of Regional Studies.


Johannes Fedderke is Director of Economic Research South Africa, Professor at Pennsylvania State University and the Wits Business School. His research interests centre on the determinants of economic growth, with special interest in the role of institutions in long run economic development. His published work includes empirical and theoretical contributions, and has provided cross-country, panel and country specific time series evidence on the interaction of growth and institutions.


Daniel Kammen is the Class of 1935 Distinguished Professor of Energy at the University of California, Berkeley, where he holds appointments in the Energy and Resources Group, the Goldman School of Public Policy, and the department of Nuclear Engineering. He is the founding director of the Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory (RAEL) and the co-Director of the Berkeley Institute of the Environment


Graeme Leach is founder of Macronomics, a macroeconomic, geopolitical and future megatrends research consultancy. Prior to establishing his company he was director of economics at the Legatum Institute, where he remains a senior fellow. Previously, for 16 years, he worked as chief economist and director of policy at the Institute of Directors, where he was also a board member. He is a life fellow of the IoD. Prior to the IoD he was variously, an associate director, chief UK economist and chief international economist at the Henley Centre for Economic Forecasting. He has also worked as economic adviser to the Scottish Provident investment group. Graeme is a frequent media commentator and writes a regular column in the City AM newspaper.


 Michael Reed is Professor of Agricultural Economics at the University of Kentucky.  Reed holds a Ph.D. in economics from Iowa State University (1979); a Doctor Honoris Causa (Honorary Ph.D) from Bucharest University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (Romania); and an Honorary Ph.D. from the Faculty of Business Administration, Maejo University (Thailand).


Boopen Seetanah is an associate Professor of International Economics and Finance at the University of Mauritius and the WTO Chair Programme Co-Chair. He is also the director of research at the International Centre For Sustainable Tourism and Hospitality (ICSTH) at the University of Mauritius. Boopen’s research interest is in international tourism and trade, international finance and applied economics. He is/has been a consultant for a number of international organisation such as the World Bank, UNEP, COMESA, RMCE, UNDP and ADB among others.


David Stern is a professor in the Crawford School of Public Policy at The Australian National University. He is a research associate in CAMA and CCEP, and a participant in the Energy Change Institute. David is an energy and environmental economist, whose research focuses on the role of energy in growth and development and related environmental impacts including climate change.


Mahesh Sugathan is a Senior Research Fellow with the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development in Geneva working on trade, climate change and sustainable energy issues with a focus on climate-technologies. He is also an independent consultant on trade policy issues and in addition provides business facilitation services for private sector firms.


Haakon Vennemo, is an professor in environmental economics, energy economics and development issues, with a broad knowledge of macro and micro-economics in general. He has project experience from a large number of countries in Asia, Africa and Latin-America and is an experienced project manager as well as participant.


Leonard Waverman is Dean of the DeGroote School of Business at McMaster University. He is a world-renowned expert in international telecommunications and global resources management. He has consulted widely on energy, natural resources, telecommunications and competition policy matters in Canada, the United States, and Europe. 



Francis Fukuyama is Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies (FSI), and the Mosbacher Director of FSI’s Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law.  He is professor (by courtesy) of political science.



Mark Gibney is the Belk Distinguished Professor at the University of North Carolina-Asheville and an Affiliated Scholar with the Raoul Wallenberg Institute for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law  Professor Gibney is one of the founding members of the Extraterritorial Obligations (ETO) Consortium and one of the signers of the 2011 Maastricht ETO Principles.  Since 1984 he has directed the Political Terror Scale (PTS), which is the most widely used human rights data set in the world.


 David Landsman is a Non-Executive Director and Adviser working with companies in diverse sectors on strategy, stakeholder management and geopolitical risk.  He was formerly Europe Geography Head of the Tata Group and previously a senior British diplomat, serving most recently as Ambassador to Greece. He is a Chartered Director.


Eguiar Lizundia is a Senior Manager for Governance at the International Republican Institute. Previously he worked at the World Bank as well as the private and non-profit sectors. He writes regularly for Spanish media outlets and his contributions have appeared in several U.S. publications.


Tanja Porčnik is a Senior Fellow of the Fraser Institute specializing in economic and human freedom studies. She is also an adjunct scholar at the Cato Institute and the co-founder and president of the Visio Institute. Ms. Porčnik is co-author of The Human Freedom Index. Previously, she served as Senior Fellow of the Atlas Economic Research Foundation in Washington, D.C., a Government Teaching Fellow of the American Institute on Political and Economic Systems in Prague, Czech Republic, and a Manager of External Relations of the Cato Institute in Washington, D.C. Ms. Porčnik is Editor of the Visio Journal and frequent commentator on human rights, international relations, and economic policy in the media.


Nicole Stremlau is Research Professor in the Humanities at the University of Johannesburg and she is Head of the Programme in Comparative Media Law and Policy at the University of Oxford. Her research focuses on media and conflict, particularly in the Horn of Africa. She previously worked for a newspaper in Ethiopia, and has researched new technologies and innovation in Somalia and Somaliland and media and election violence in Kenya. She is the recipient of an European Research Council grant that examines questions around social media, governance, and migration.  Recent publications include: Media, Conflict and the State in Africa (Cambridge University Press 2018); Speech and Society in Turbulent Times (ed with Monroe Price) (Cambridge University Press 2018); and UNESCO’s World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development, with Iginio Gagliardone and Monroe Price (UNESCO 2018).


Richard Youngs is a senior fellow in the Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program, based at Carnegie Europe. He works on EU foreign policy and on issues of international democracy. (Youngs is also a professor of international relations at the University of Warwick. Prior to joining Carnegie in July 2013, he was the director of the European think tank FRIDE. He has held positions in the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office and as an EU Marie Curie fellow. He was a senior fellow at the Transatlantic Academy in Washington, DC, from 2012 to 2013.)


Yahong Zhang is an associate professor in the School of Public Affairs and Administration at Rutgers University–Newark and the director of the Rutgers Institute on Anti-Corruption Studies (RIACS). Her research interests include anti-corruption studies, politics-administration relationships, citizen participation, government transparency, public administration education, and quantitative research methods.