Director of the Transitions Forum
Anne Applebaum leads the Legatum Institute’s Transitions Forum, a series of projects that examine the challenges and opportunities of radical political and economic change. She is also a columnist for the Washington Post and Slate, and the author of several books, including Gulag: A History, which won the 2004 Pulitzer Prize for non-fiction as well as other awards. Her most recent book, Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944-1946, won the 2013 Cundill Prize for Historical Literature and was nominated for a national book award in the US. Since 1989, her journalism has frequently focused on the politics of transition in Russia, central Europe and other former communist states, but she has also written extensively about British, American and European politics and international relations. She is a former member of the Washington Post editorial board, a former deputy editor of the Spectator magazine, a former political editor of the Evening Standard and a former Warsaw correspondent of The Economist. Her work also appears regularly in the New York Review of Books, Foreign Policy, the New Republic, the Daily Telegraph and many other UK and US publications. She is married to Radek Sikorski, former Foreign Minister of Poland.
Director of Economic Policy and Prosperity Studies
Shanker Singham leads the Legatum Institute’s Economics of Prosperity work which examines how countries can become more productive, and the role free trade—with open, competitive markets—plays in helping people of all incomes increase their prosperity. Previously, Shanker was head of market access at Squire Sanders and Managing Director of the Competitiveness and Enterprise Cities project at Babson Global. Currently, he is the CEO of Competere. Shanker has worked with governments and companies around the world on market opening and transition issues, including on the early privatisations of the UK electricity market, the former Soviet Union, the accession of Poland and Hungary to the EU, the transitions in Latin America after the apertura and the WTO accessions of a number of countries, including China and Russia. In 1997, Shanker founded the International Roundtable on Trade and Competition as a way of promoting the notion of free trade, competitive markets and property rights protection around the world. A cleared advisor to the United States government on trade issues, he is also Non-Government Adviser to the International Competition Network. Shanker has also been a senior trade and economics adviser to a number of political candidates including Democratic Governors Lawton Chiles and Buddy McKay of Florida as well as Governor Mitt Romney’s Presidential campaigns in 2008 and 2012.
Director of the Prosperity Index
Alexandra Mousavizadeh directs the development and expansion of the Legatum Institute’s flagship publication, the Legatum Prosperity Index™. Previously, Alexandra was CEO of ARC Ratings an Emerging Market based ratings agency spanning the sovereign, corporate and structured finance ratings segments. Prior to joining ARC Ratings she covered the Africa sovereign ratings portfolio at Moody’s Investors Service preceded by a role as Head of Country Risk Management for EMEA at Morgan Stanley in London. Formerly, she spent 10 years in the Sovereign Risk team at Moody’s based in New York covering Emerging and Frontier Markets. Other prior roles include Visiting Research Scholar at the US think tank, Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington DC. She is also a former council member at the Royal Africa Society and a member of the Advisory Board at the Royal Danish Embassy in London. She is an Economist from the University of Copenhagen.
Lord (James) O’Shaughnessy
Lord O’Shaughnessy is responsible for advising and coordinating research programme across the Legatum Institute. Previously, he was Director of Policy to David Cameron (2010-11) and former Director of Policy and Research to the Conservative Party (2007-10), during which time he authored the party’s 2010 General Election Manifesto. Prior to that, he was Deputy Director of the think tank Policy Exchange where he was responsible for the operation and delivery of their award-winning research programme. In 2013 Lord O’Shaughnessy set up Floreat Education, a growing chain of Academies and Free Schools in the primary sector. His service to education and public policy was recognised by the Prime Minister in 2015 when he was appointed to the House of Lords.
Peter Pomerantsev leads the Beyond Propaganda programme within the Legatum Institute's Transitions Forum. He is also an author and documentary producer. His writing features regularly in the London Review of Books, Atlantic, Financial Times, Foreign Policy and elsewhere, focusing largely, though not exclusively, on 21st century propaganda. Previously, Pomerantsev worked as a consultant on EU and World Bank development projects in the former USSR. His book about working as a TV producer in Putin's Russia, Nothing is True and Everything is Possible, was published by Faber in 2015.
Director of the Centre for Character and Values
Cristina Odone leads the Legatum Institute's Centre for Character & Values. A former Editor of the Catholic Herald and Deputy Editor of the New Statesman, Cristina has been a commentator for the Daily Telegraph since 2008. As a broadcaster, she contributes regularly to Question Time, Any Questions, Big Questions, the Today programme, Woman’s Hour, Newsnight, The Jeremy Vine Show, The Adam Boulton programme on Sky News, as well as other local and international outlets. As a Research Fellow at the Centre for Policy Studies since 2005, she has published pamphlets on faith schools, euthanasia and working women. She is the author of five books, most recently No God Zone, a best-selling Amazon Kindle Single. She has interviewed leading political and public figures, including Iain Duncan Smith, Nigel Farage, Lord Heseltine and Bianca Jagger.
Hywel Williams leads the Legatum Institute’s The Culture of Prosperity programme. Hywel is also an historian, commentator and broadcaster. His books include The Age of Chivalry: Culture and Power in Medieval Europe 950-1450; Emperor of the West: Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire; Sun Kings: A History of Kingship; Days that Changed the World: the Fifty Defining Events of World History; Cassell’s Chronology of World History: Dates, Events and Ideas that Made History; In Our Time: Speeches That Shaped The Modern World; Britain’s Power Elites: The Rebirth of A Ruling Class; and Guilty Men: Conservative Decline and Fall 1992-1997. His television credits as writer and presenter include documentaries on David Lloyd George, the career of Pope Benedict XV, and an international history of the late twentieth century. His history of the modern coal industry, and a polemical essay, Community and its Myths, were broadcast by S4C in 2015. A Cabinet Adviser to the last Conservative Government, he has been Senior Adviser at the Legatum Institute since 2012. His book Britain: A New History for Our Time will be published in September 2015, and his six-part television history, How Empires Fall, will be broadcast in the spring of 2016.
Managing Editor, Democracy Lab
Christian Caryl is a Senior Fellow to the Transitions Forum and chief editor of Democracy Lab, a Legatum Institute website published in partnership with Foreign Policy magazine. Democracy Lab follows transitions from authoritarianism to democracy around the world. Before joining the Legatum Institute, Christian worked for a year as Washington bureau chief for Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. From 2000 to 2009 he was a foreign correspondent for Newsweek, running the magazine's bureaus in Moscow and Tokyo. He has reported from some 50 countries and his assignments have ranged from Japanese cuisine to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. His first journalistic assignment was covering the collapse of communist East Germany and the fall of the Berlin Wall. He has lived in Germany for thirteen years, Russia for seven, Japan for five, Kazakhstan for one, and Hong Kong for four months. He is the author of the book Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century (Basic Books) which was shortlisted for the 2013 Cundill Prize in Historical Literature. Christian has a degree in comparative literature at Yale College and a graduate year at the University of Constance in Germany.
Senior Programme Director
Alanna Balaban Putze is responsible for the development and management of a number of Legatum Institute programmes in the Transitions Forum and The Culture of Prosperity. She has worked in foreign policy and communications for more than ten years, with experience managing international projects both at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, DC and at the Aspen Institute Berlin in Germany. She also served as a European Policy advisor at the US Department of Defense, where she managed political-military relations with Turkey, Greece, Cyprus and the Black Sea region. Most recently Alanna served as a consultant in London, overseeing global thought leadership campaigns for government and corporate clients. She is also co-producer of a short dance film, Solo Finale, released in 2014. Alanna holds a Master’s in Political Sociology from the London School of Economics and an undergraduate degree in Russian and International Relations from Georgetown University.